New Books from the Journalism Side of the House

We are adding a trio of books to our Library. While designed for writers who are following the Computer-Assisted Reporting model, they are useful to anyone doing the deep dive into the fact pool.

These three books are not for the hit-and-run researcher, who is interested in a quick snapshot. For researchers who are in for the long haul, piecing the parts of the puzzle together over an extended period, these books are a valuable resource.

*Computer-Assisted Research is by Nora Paul and Kathleen A. Hansen

‘*Computer-Assisted Reporting —  A Practical Guide (4th Edition) is by Brant Houston

*Mapping for Stories – A Computer-Assisted Reporting Guide is by Jennifer LaFleur and Andy Lehren

All are available through the Investigative Reporters and Editors,

Top Level Domains

Knowing where the site is from, or what it purports to represent, can be helpful in researching on the web. A top-level domain (TLD) it is the group of letters that follow the final dot of a domain name. A TLD is the final portion of an Internet domain name. While many are common, some are rarely seen. A researcher who doesn’t recognize a TLD should research the domain prior to clicking on the link.
Some TLDs are generic, such as COM (commercial), .ORG (organization), .NET (network), EDU (education) and .INFO (information). There are also generic-restricted top-level domain names. There are similar to the generic top-level domains, but the eligibility for the use of the name is restricted. These include: BIZ, .NAME, .PRO. Some generic TLDs are restricted to the sponsoring organizations, which parcel them out according to strict rules. These include AERO, .ASIA, .CAT, .COOP, .EDU, .GOV, .INT, .JOBS, .MIL, .MOBI, .MUSEUM, .TEL, and TRAVEL. Reserved Top-Level Domains fall into a group designed for infrastructure support, testing, and international organizations. For example, internationalized top-level domains have been reserved by IANA for testing internationalized domain names.
Country code TLDs – two letters long – are used to identify specific countries or physical locations. Some common country code TLDs are:

.AC Ascension Island
.AD Andorra
.AE United Arab Emirates
.AF Afghanistan
.AG Antigua and Barbuda
.AI Anguilla
.AL Albania
.AM Armenia
.AN Netherlands Antilles
.AO Angola
.AQ Antarctica
.AR Argentina
.AS American Samoa
.AT Austria
.AU Australia
.AW Aruba
.AX Aland Islands
.AZ Azerbaijan

.BA Bosnia and Herzegovina
.BB Barbados
.BD Bangladesh
.BE Belgium
.BF Burkina Faso
.BG Bulgaria
.BH Bahrain
.BI Burundi
.BJ Benin
.BL Saint Barthelemy
.BM Bermuda
.BN Brunei Darussalam
.BO Bolivia
.BR Brazil
.BS Bahamas
.BT Bhutan
.BV Bouvet Island
.BW Botswana
.BY Belarus
.BZ Belize

.CA Canada
.CC Cocos (Keeling) Islands
.CD Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
.CF Central African Republic
.CG Congo
.CH Switzerland
.CI Cote d’Ivoire
.CK Cook Islands
.CL Chile
.CM Cameroon
.CN China
.CO Colombia
.CR Costa Rica
.CU Cuba
.CV Cape Verde
.CX Christmas Island
.CY Cyprus
.CZ Czech Republic

.DE Germany
.DJ Djibouti
.DK Denmark
.DM Dominica
.DO Dominican Republic
.DZ Algeria

.EC Ecuador
.EE Estonia
.EG Egypt
.EH Western Sahara
.ER Eritrea
.ES Spain
.ET Ethiopia
.EU European Union

.FI Finland
.FJ Fiji
.FK FalKLand Islands (Malvinas)
.FM Micronesia, Federated States of
.FO Faroe Islands
.FR France

.GA Gabon
.GB United Kingdom
.GD Grenada
.GE Georgia
.GF French Guiana
.GG Guernsey
.GH Ghana
.GI Gibraltar
.GL Greenland
.GM Gambia
.GN Guinea
.GP Guadeloupe
.GQ Equatorial Guinea
.GR Greece
.GS South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
.GT Guatemala
.GU Guam
.GW Guinea-Bissau
.GY Guyana

.HK Hong Kong
.HM Heard Island and McDonald Islands
.HN Honduras
.HR Croatia
.HT Haiti
.HU Hungary

.ID Indonesia
.IE Ireland
.IL Israel
.IM Isle of Man
.IN India
.IO British Indian Ocean Territory
.IQ Iraq
.IR Iran, Islamic Republic of
.IS Iceland
.IT Italy

.JE Jersey
.JM Jamaica
.JO Jordan
.JP Japan

.KE Kenya
.KG Kyrgyzstan
.KH Cambodia
.KI Kiribati
.KM Comoros
.KN Saint Kitts and Nevis
.KP Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of
.KR Korea, Republic of
.KW Kuwait
.KY Cayman Islands
.KZ Kazakhstan

.LA Lao People’s Democratic Republic
.LB Lebanon
.LC Saint Lucia
.LI Liechtenstein
.LK Sri Lanka
.LR Liberia
.LS Lesotho
.LT Lithuania
.LU Luxembourg
.LV Latvia
.LY Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

.MA Morocco
.MC Monaco
.MD Moldova
.ME Montenegro
.MF Saint Martin
.MG Madagascar
.MH Marshall Islands
.MK Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
.ML Mali
.MM Myanmar
.MN Mongolia
.MO Macao
.MP Northern Mariana Islands
.MQ Martinique
.MR Mauritania
.MS Montserrat
.MT Malta
.MU Mauritius
.MV Maldives
.MW Malawi
.MX Mexico
.MY Malaysia
.MZ Mozambique

.NA Namibia
.NC New Caledonia
.NE Niger
.NF Norfolk Island
.NG Nigeria
.NI Nicaragua
.NL Netherlands
.NO Norway
.NP Nepal
.NR Nauru
.NU Niue
.NZ New Zealand

.OM Oman

.PA Panama
.PE Peru
.PG Papua New Guinea
.PH Philippines
.PK Pakistan
.PL Poland
.PM Saint Pierre and Miquelon
.PN Pitcairn
.PR Puerto Rico
.PS Palestinian Territory, Occupied
.PT Portugal
.PW Palau
.PY Paraguay

.QA Qatar

.RE Reunion
.RO Romania
.RS Serbia
.RU Russian Federation
.RW Rwanda

.SA Saudi Arabia
.SB Solomon Islands
.SC Seychelles
.SD Sudan
.SE Sweden
.SG Singapore
.SH Saint Helena
.SI Slovenia
.SJ Svalbard and Jan Mayen
.SK Slovakia
.SL Sierra Leone
.SM San Marino
.SN Senegal
.SO Somalia
.SR Suriname
.ST Sao Tome and Principe
.SU Soviet Union (being phased out)
.SV El Salvador
.SY Syrian Arab Republic
.SZ Swaziland

.TC Turks and Caicos Islands
.TD Chad
.TF French Southern Territories
.TG Togo
.TH Thailand
.TJ Tajikistan
.TK Tokelau
.TL Timor-Leste
.TM Turkmenistan
.TN Tunisia
.TO Tonga
.TP Portuguese Timor (being phased out)
.TR Turkey
.TT Trinidad and Tobago
.TV Tuvalu
.TW Taiwan
.TZ Tanzania, United Republic of

.UA Ukraine
.UG Uganda
.UK United Kingdom
.UM United States Minor Outlying Islands
.US United States
.UY Uruguay
.UZ Uzbekistan

.VA Holy See (Vatican City State)
.VC Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
.VE Venezuela
.VG Virgin Islands, British
.VI Virgin Islands, U.S.
.VN Viet Nam
.VU Vanuatu

.WF Wallis and Futuna
.WS Samoa

.YE Yemen
.YT Mayotte
.YU Yugoslavia (being phased out)

.ZA South Africa
.ZM Zambia
.ZW Zimbabwe

Bits ‘n’ Pieces Blog


Bits ‘n’ Pieces is a location where you communicate with us, and we answer requests from readers, users, and students. It contains bits ‘n’ pieces of our classes and is meant to provide a quick overview of some of the skill sets and equipment needed to do effective research. Material in our courses goes into greater depth, but the answers here are designed to get users moving in the right direction quickly.

Bits ‘n’ Pieces changes often. Return soon for more informative help. When you have a question for the Bits ‘n’ Pieces feature, please submit it through the “Contact Us” form.

File Titles – Finding the Information you Saved

It is one thing to find and save material you use later. It is quite another to find that nugget when you want to use it sometime – maybe months – later. To eliminate the problem before it develops, there are several ways that, taken together, will make the process easier.

First, keep all your information downloads in a single folder; don’t spread them out across the computer. You can certainly make subfolders within that folder. Think the process through and remember there is no one file system that’s best. There is only one that is best for you.

Consider getting, installing, and using a desktop search engine. They are available at low cost or even no cost. They can be found by typing “desktop search engine” into your usual search engine.

Simply typing in key words into a desktop search egine will usually help find the article you want, but winnowing down even that list can be daunting so you need some additional techniques.

It helps to have the files named in some consistent pattern that makes sense to you. When saving the files, develop and follow a consistent naming pattern. For instance you might:

Put the year first, then the month and finally the date in a two-number increment of year-month-date. This will make search for a particular time frame easier. 150101 will always come before 151231, and the dates in between will be sequential.

That number may be followed by the subject, a country or both. Leave no spaces in the file title as spaces will be filled with an “&” sign. That makes both reading and searching difficult. Type all letters in lower case; do not use capitals as a mixed line will also make searches more difficult. The subject may be run in with date, or separated by an underscore (_). The saved file may now have a name like 150101venezuelaeconomy or 151231_usstamps. Additional key words, or even codes you develop to identify the material, may be added but try to keep the file name as short as possible. Then put in a hyphen. Do not use a hyphen prior to this. The hyphen is used to signal that everything after it is the URL, allowing you or another researcher to get back to the original item on the web. The saved file now has the name of 150101venezuelaeconomy- or 151231_usstamps-.

Now connect your front end name of the file to the URL so that it looks like: or

The result is a file name that is identifiable, dated as to download date, and has a working URL linked to it so that a researcher can return to the original location if needed.